NCERT Geography Notes IAS pdf-UPSC Study Material Free Download ebooks
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NCERT GEOGRAPHY NOTES IAS PDF-UPSC STUDY MATERIAL FREE DOWNLOAD EBOOKS
Q What is Geography?
- Geography is concerned with the description and explanation of the areal
- differentiation of the earth’s surface.is important for human beings.
- Land forms provide the base on which human activities are located. The plains are utilised for agriculture.
- Plateaus provide forests and minerals.
- Mountains provide pastures, forests, tourist spots and are sources of rivers providing water to lowlands.
Q BRANCHES OF GEOGRAPHY
(i) Geomorphology is devoted to the study of land forms, their evolution and related processes.
(ii) Climatology encompasses the study of structure of atmosphere and elementsof weather
and climates and climatic types and regions.
(iii) Hydrology studies the realm of water over the surface of the earth includingoceans,
lakes, rivers and other waterbodies and its effect on different life forms including
human life and theiractivities.
(iv) SoilGeographyisdevotedtostudythe processes of soil formation, soil types, their
fertility status, distribution and use.
2. Human Geography
(i) Social/Cultural Geography encom- passes the study of society and itsspatial dynamics
as well as the culturalelements contributed by thesociety.
(ii) Population and SettlementGeography (Rural and Urban). It studies populationgrowth,
distribution, density, sex ratio,migration and occupational structureetc. Settlement
geography studies thecharacteristics of rural and urbansettlements.
(iii) Economic Geography studies economic activities of the people including agriculture,
industry, tourism, trade,and transport, infrastructure andservices, etc.
(iv) Historical Geography studiesthe historical processes through which the space gets
organised. Every region has undergone some historical experiencesbefore attaining the
present day status.The geographical features alsoexperience temporal changes and
these form the concerns of historicalgeography.
(v) Political Geography looks at the space from the angle of political events and studies
boundaries, space relationsbetween neighbouring political units,delimitation of
constituencies, election scenario and develops theoretical framework to understand
the political behaviour of the population.
The interface between physical geography and human geography has lead to the development
of Biogeography which includes:
(i) Plant Geography which studies the spatial pattern of natural vegetation intheir habitats.
(ii) Zoo Geography which studies the spatial patterns and geographiccharacteristics of
animals and their habitats.
(iii) Ecology /Ecosystem deals with the scientific study of the habitats characteristic of species.